Open Letter on Climate Change to the Government of Canada

La lettre ouverte en français.

See Science for Peace Press Release from December 17, 2009

See signatures to the open letter

To the Honourable Prime Minister and the Ministers of the Canadian Government:

To the leaders of the Opposition Parties:

The undersigned university faculty members call on the Prime Minister and the Ministers of the Canadian Government and on the leaders of the Opposition Parties to respond to the planetary emergency of climate change. As we will argue, greenhouse gas emissions must be drastically reduced, and soon. The time frame is critical, and it is dictated by the physical environment, not by political or economic considerations. To paraphrase Abraham Lincoln, you can’t fool the environment any of the time.

It is unacceptable and horrifying by the standards of public health and morality that many industrialized nations are doing the opposite of what is required, by actually increasing greenhouse gas emissions. The Canadian government is particularly culpable, as it has persistently obstructed cooperative global action and even continues to invest in the growth of a carbon-based economy. The Energy Information Administration of the U.S. government predicts that Canada will continue to have the highest per capita carbon emissions in 2030 at 19 metric tons per person, whereas by contrast the continent of Africa will remain at current levels of 1.0 metric tons per person. The physical environment does not know national boundaries: our emissions bring premature death and hardship worldwide, especially to the people who did not cause the problem.

There is so much at stake. Societies are already facing threats of unprecedented severity as climate change is occurring faster than predicted. More intense and longer droughts occur over larger areas, extreme weather events are more frequent and have caused hundreds of thousands of deaths, melting mountain glaciers threaten water systems vital to agriculture, sea level rise begins to inundate island nations and now causes increased salinity in the Nile Delta which is the breadbasket of Egypt, the Inuit people are losing their means of subsistence, extreme heat waves cause thousands of deaths, there is altered distribution of diseases, and higher temperatures have led to massive forest fires and to the costly pine beetle infestation in western Canadian forests. Climate change and other contributing human activities are now causing species extinction estimated to be about a thousand times the natural rate.

The danger is imminent of an irreversible alteration of climate. The tipping point that must be avoided at all costs is the melting of the polar ice-sheets and of the permafrost. Should this happen, the loss of global reflectivity and the release of additional greenhouse gases may send the temperature skyrocketing.

The last time the world was only 1 degree C warmer than pre-industrial levels for a sustained period of time, sea level was five meters higher than today. Such a rise would submerge coastal areas and would inundate low-lying fresh water systems. When the climate was last 2 degrees C to 3 degrees C warmer, sea levels were perhaps 25 m higher than today. Such a catastrophe is admittedly some decades in the future, but preventing it requires action now.

New data from paleoclimate studies, using ice and sediment cores, indicate how much atmospheric CO2 the world can live with. When it stood above 450 parts per million, the polar ice was gone. To be safe from the tipping point, the level must be kept below 350 ppm; this estimate by the eminent NASA scientist James Hansen (see especially James R. Hansen et al, 2008. Open Atmospheric Science Journal, vol 2, 217-231) is endorsed by the Chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

At present the concentration is 390 ppm. That is, we have overshot the target. To save a world in which humanity can thrive, it is essential to rapidly reduce carbon fuel emissions to zero and then pass to negative emissions by reabsorbing CO2 from the atmosphere. This is believed to be feasible by using various means including reforestation and underground sequestration. The required changes in energy use and generation will need to persist far beyond our lifetimes, but that must not blind us to the need to begin these changes immediately. If we postpone these very significant reductions we may slide past the tipping point to profound and essentially permanent climate change which might doom human civilization and even humanity.

Canada can still step aside from the path of ecological collapse, but the time is short. It is known that energy from renewable sources – wind, water, and solar – can be enough for the world to have a modified but still comfortable way of life. What is uncomfortable is making the transition so suddenly. Rapidly reducing to zero carbon emissions will inevitably incur substantial short-term dislocations and human insecurity. The need is everyone’s, and all of us must share in meeting it. Jobs lost in energy and extractive industries must be replaced by jobs in conversion to a sustainable economy, and unemployment during the changeover be cushioned by government support. With good leadership, Canada has shown it can make such rapid changes – for example, at the outbreak of World War II. We call on you to provide such leadership now, while there is still time.

The big immediate task is to put in place a precise timetable taking Canada to zero fossil fuel emissions in the near future. This means setting a precise time-profile of maximum emissions, falling quickly to zero (Hansen et al propose, for example, a linear decrease with time, leading to zero by 2030). The chosen schedule of emission reduction needs to be absolute and not subject to trade-offs of any kind.

Various detailed studies have shown how to proceed on the path toward an eventual completely renewable energy society. The huge emissions associated with the military industry cannot be tolerated; transportation and housing arrangements will have to be reconfigured; agricultural practices will have to become less carbon-intensive. The tar sands project is inconsistent with the requirement of zero emissions: tar sands extraction is ruinous to the atmosphere, to the Athabasca water system, and to a large tract of boreal forest. Even in the short term it has not benefited Canadians or Albertans because of the very low royalty rates and large federal subsidies.

Fortunately there are many people in Canada, including academics, who have long studied these problems and who are eager to help the government find the best solutions to each problem. We call on the Canadian government to acknowledge the gravity of the current climate crisis, to safeguard the future of our children and grandchildren who are at great risk here in Canada and worldwide, by taking the appropriate actions without further delay.

Sincerely,

  1. Danny Harvey, Professor, Dept. of Geography, University of Toronto, Convening Lead Author and Contributing Author to various IPCC reports

  2. Helmut Burkhardt, Professor of Physics Emeritus, Ryerson University

  3. Chandler Davis, Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto

  4. Derek Paul, Professor (Emeritus), Dept. of Physics, University of Toronto

  5. Ursula M. Franklin, C.C. FRSC, University Professor Emerita, University of Toronto, Massey College

  6. Dr. Edwin E. Daniel, Professor Emeritus, Adjunct Professor, University of Alberta – Now is the time to act on greenhouse gases!

  7. Peter H. Russell, Professor, University of Toronto

  8. Meyer Brownstone, Professor Emeritus, Political Economy, University of Toronto, Trent University

  9. Dr. Jim Harding, Retired-Adjunct Professor of Justice, University of Regina

  10. Colin L. Soskolne, Professor, University of Alberta, School of Public Health

  11. Pierre Jasmin, professeur titulaire, Université du Québec à Montréal, président des Artistes pour la Paix

  12. Sam Lanfranco, Professor Emeritus & Senior Scholar, York University

  13. Paul Arminjon, Professor, Université de Montréal

  14. Shahrzad Mojab, Professor, University of Toronto

  15. Michael D. Wallace, Professor Emeritus, University of British Columbia

  16. Dr. Joanna Santa Barbara, McMaster University (retired)

  17. Jon Thompson, Professor Emeritus, UNB

  18. Franklyn Griffiths, Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto

  19. Margrit Eichler, Professor, University of Toronto (OISE/UT), FRSC and Fellow of the European Academy of Sciences

  20. Lisa Jeffrey, Professor, Mathematics Department, University of Toronto

  21. Dorothy Goldin Rosenberg, MES, PhD, Lecturer, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

  22. Dr. Beth Savan, Professor, Director of the Centre for the Environment, University of Toronto

  23. Alex C. Michalos, Chancellor, University of Northern British Columbia

  24. Florin Diacu, Professor, University of Victoria

  25. John Warkentin, Professor Emeritus and Senior Scholar, York University

  26. Nancy Holmes, Professor, University of British Columbia Okanagan

  27. Shaun Lovejoy, Professor, McGill

  28. Paul Olson, Professor, University of Toronto

  29. André Gombay, Emeritus Professor, University of Toronto

  30. Natalie Zemon Davis, Adjunct Professor of History, University of Toronto

  31. Jan D. Huizinga, Professor, McMaster University

  32. Dr. D.W. Livingstone, Canada Research Chair of Lifelong Learning and Work, Univeristy of Toronto

  33. Dr. Laura Westra, Professor Emerita, University of Windsor

  34. Bernd Baldus, Professor, University of Toronto

  35. Marion Blute, Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto at Mississauga

  36. George B. Spiegelman, Professor, University of British Columbia

  37. Roger I Simon, Professor, University of Toronto

  38. Paul Montpetit Gauthier, Adjunct Professor, Univeristé de Montéal

  39. Dr. Edmund O’Sullivan, Professor, University of Toronto

  40. Jack Quarter, Professor, University of Toronto

  41. Peter Flood, Professor emeritus, University of Saskatchewan

  42. Lorne Tepperman, Professor, University of Toronto

  43. Dr. David V. J. Bell, Professor Emeritus, former Dean, Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University

  44. Roy D. Savia, Professor, School of Advancement, Centennial College

  45. Christopher Hrynkow, Distance Education Instructor, University of Manitoba

  46. Roxana Ng, Professor, University of Toronto

  47. Deborah Harrison, Professor (ret’d) and Adjunct Professor, University of New Brunswick, Sociology

  48. John Miller, Professor, University of Toronto

  49. Stephanie Westlund, PhD Candidate, University of Manitoba

  50. Marjorie Griffin Cohen, Professor, Simon Fraser University

  51. Richard Lebrun, Professor Emeritus, University of Manitoba

  52. Sarah Power, Student, Adult Education and Community Development, University of Toronto, OISE

  53. Jim Prentice, Professor Emeritus of Physics, University of Toronto

  54. Patrick Howard, Associate Professor, Cape Breton University

  55. Weiguo Zhang, Associate Professor, University of Toronto at Mississauga

  56. Alison Prentice, Adjunct Professor, University of Victoria

  57. Wariri Muhungi, Student, OISE, University of Toronto

  58. Jean-Paul Restoule, Assistant Professor, University of Toronto (OISE/UT)

  59. Daniel Schugurensky, Associate Professor, University of Toronto, OISE

  60. Nancy Jackson, Associate Professor, University of Toronto

  61. Catherine Stewart, Assistant Professor, Wilfrid Laurier University

  62. Diana L. Gustafson, Associate Professor, Memorial University

  63. Joseph M. Bryant, Professor, University of Toronto

  64. Dieter Misgeld, Professor emeritus, University of Toronto

  65. Wendy Loudon, M. Ed., University of Toronto

  66. Frangess Kohi, Student, OISE, University of Toronto

  67. Paul Antze, Associate Professor, Social Science, York University

  68. Barbara Godard, Professor Emerita and Senior Scholar, York University

  69. Ellen Judd, Professor, University of Manitoba

  70. Hilda Swirsky, Registered Nurse, OISE Alumni, Environmental Activist

  71. Dr. Darlene Clover, University of Victoria

  72. Dr. Jennifer Dyer, Memorial University of Newfoundland

  73. Lisa Wood, Associate Professor, Laurier Brantford

  74. Dr. Yanqing Yi, Assistant Professor, Memorial University of Newfoundland

  75. Dr. Jill Allison, Lecturer, Memorial University of Newfoundland

  76. Dr. David Maxwell, Dalhousie University, Faculty of Medicine

  77. Paul J. Eisenbarth, Asst. Clinical Professor (Emeritus), McMaster University

  78. Louise Gagne, M.D., University of Saskatchewan

  79. Reade Davis, Assistant Professor, Memorial University of Newfoundland

  80. Eva Kushner, Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto

  81. Patricia Betts, Assistant Professor, Cae Breton University

  82. Dr. Donald Betts, FRSC, Professor Emeritus, Dalhousie University

  83. Graham Reynolds, Professor of History, Cape Breton University

  84. James Valcour, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology, Memorial University of Newfoundland

  85. Craig Hanyan, Professor Emeritus, Brock University

  86. Karen Mundy, Associate Professor, University of Toronto

  87. Robin Whitaker, Associate Professor (Anthropology), Memorial University of Newfoundland

  88. Dr. Mark Hudson, Assistant Professor, University of Manitoba

  89. Claudia Malacrida, Associate Professor, University of Lethbridge

  90. Meg Luxton, Professor, York University

  91. Holly Platz, M.Ed Candidate, University of Toronto, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education

  92. Heather Green, Manager, BSW/MSW Programs, FNTI

  93. Al-Nasir Peera, Student – MEd Program, University of Toronto

  94. Dr. Tara Goldstein, Professor, University of Toronto

  95. Gayle MacDonald, Professor, Sociology and AVP Research, St. Thomas University

  96. Catherine Donovan, Associate Professor, Public Health, Memorial University

  97. Roberta Edgecombe Robb, Professor Emeritus, Brock University

  98. Olga Netchaeva, M.Ed. Candidate, University of Toronto

  99. Jason Laurendeau, Assistant Professor (Sociology), University of Lethbridge

  100. Sally A. Ludwig, Sessional Instructor, University of Gueph, Couple & Family Therapy Program

  101. Arun Mukherjee, Professor, York University

  102. Graham M. Simpson, Professor Emeritus, Saskatchewan

  103. Nicole Chapman, M.Ed., University of Victoria

  104. Alison Burkett, Graduate Student and Teacher, University of Toronto

  105. Dr. Sharon Dale Stone, Professor, Lakehead University, Department of Sociology

  106. Faiz Ahmed, Graduate Student, University of New Brunswick

  107. Daryl King, Student Mentor, FNTI/Ryerson University

  108. Eimear O’Neill, PhD affiliate, Transformative Learning Centre, OISE, University of Toronto, International Indigenous Education Network

  109. Ganesh Harilal, Professor, Political Science, Vanier College

  110. Dr. Christopher John Doran, Professor, University of New Brunswick

  111. Roanne Thomas-MacLean, Associate Professor, University of Saskatchewan

  112. Aysan Sev’er, Professor, University of Toronto, Scarborough

  113. Dr. Stan R. Blecher, University of Guelph

  114. Agi Lukacs, Senior Lecturer, University of Toronto

  115. Stephanie Bruce, Ph.D. candidate, Sociology, University of New Brunswick

  116. Shannon Butcher, Youth Justice Worker, First Nations Technical Institute

  117. Fiona Hanley, Professor of Nursing, Dawson College

  118. Abby Lippman, Professor, McGill University

  119. Rachel Welham, University of Toronto

  120. Chris Kaposy, Assistant Professor of Health Ethics, Memorial University

  121. Christiane Rousseau, Full Professor, Université de Montréal, Mathematics

  122. Pierre Biron, Honorary Professor, Université de Montréal, Faculty of Medicine

  123. Iva Kinclova,OISE, University of Toronto

  124. Jennie Hornosty, Professor, Sociology University of New Brunswick, Fredericton

  125. Ann McGoey, Nurse Practitioner, Lakehead University

  126. Erika Simpson, Associate Professor, University of Western Ontario

  127. Charlene Mayes, Senior Teaching Associate, University of New Brunswick

  128. Tim Quigley, Professor of Law, University of Saskatchewan

  129. Gary Warrick, Associate Professor, Wilfrid Laurier University, Brantford

  130. Youngblood Henderson, Research Director, University of Saskatchewan

  131. Sergei Plekhanov, Associate Professor, York University

  132. Felix Hoehn, Assistant Professor, Law, University of Saskatchewan

  133. Glenis Joyce, Extension specialist, University of Saskatchewan

  134. Lucinda Vandervort, Professor, University of Saskatchewan, College of Law

  135. Brent Cuthbertson, Associate Professor and Director, Lakehead University, Ontario

  136. Glen Luther, Associate Professor, University of Saskatchewan

  137. Markus Gehring, Vice-Dean Research University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law, Civil Law Section

  138. Mary Pat MacDonald, MA, Student, Liaison, University of Winnipeg, Faculty of Theology

  139. Roy J. Adams Sallows, Chair of Human Rights, University of Saskatchewan

  140. Robin Hansen, Professor, University of Saskatchewan

  141. Ariane Burke, Professor, Université de Montreal

  142. Heather Heavin, Assistant Professor, University of Saskatchewan

  143. Dr. Sandra Hoenle, University of Calgary

  144. Michelle Drapeau, Associate Professor, Université de Montréal

  145. Rakhi Ruparelia, Assistant Professor, University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law

  146. Martha Jackman, Professor, University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law

  147. Norman Zlotkin, Associate Dean, Academic University of Saskatchewan, College of Law

  148. Shelley AM Gavigan, Professor, Osgoode Hall Law School, York University

  149. Faisal Moola, PhD, Adjunct Faculty, Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto

  150. Rick Schmidt, Instructor, University of Winnipeg, Conflict Resolution Studies

  151. Carly Adams, Assistant Professor, University of Lethbridge

  152. Briony Penn, Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Victoria

  153. Theriault, Assistant Professor, University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law

  154. Susan Boyd, Professor, UBC

  155. Stuart Houston, OC, SOM, MD, Professor Emeritus, University of Saskatchewan

  156. Louis Lefeber, Professor (emeritus), York University

  157. Elaine Newman, Professor Emeritus, Concordia University

  158. Dr. William R. Adamson, Professor of Pastoral Theology (Retired), University of Saskatchewan

  159. James Deutsch, Assistant Professor, Psychiatry, University of Toronto

  160. Deborah van Wyck Professor of Nursing, Dawson College

  161. Robert Korol, Professor Emeritus, McMaster, Civil Engineering

  162. Bruce E. Dunn, Professor Emeritus, University of Calgary

  163. Ralph C. Martin, Professor, Nova Scotia Agricultural College

  164. Nonita T. Yap, Professor, University of Guelph

  165. Jean Turner, Associate Professor Emerita, University of Guelph

  166. Alan Slavin, Professor, Physics & Astronomy, Trent University

  167. Doug Surtees, Assistant Professor, University of Saskatchewan

  168. Tom Whillans, Associate Professor, Trent University

  169. Robert M. Pike, Professor Emeritus, Queen’s University

  170. Elaine Gibson, Associate Professor, Law, Dalhousie University

  171. Susan Wurtele, Associate Professor, Trent University

  172. Luis Sobrino, Professor Emeritus of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia

  173. Lee Lorch, Professor Emeritus & Senior Scholar, York University, Mathematics & Statistics

  174. Helmar Drost, Professor Emeritus in Economics, York University

  175. John A. Boan, Professor Emeritus, University of Regina

  176. Trudy Bruyns, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Assistant Professor, University of Western Ontario, on leave

  177. Bill Atkinson, Professor of Physics, Trent University

  178. Annie Rochette, Professor, Université du Québec à Montréal, Département des sciences juridiques

  179. William C. Mahaney, Professor Emeritus, York University & Quaternary Surveys

  180. Adrian L. Burke, Professor, Université de Montréal

  181. David Lyon, Professor, Queen’s University

  182. Michael Bradfield, Professor, Economics (retired), Dalhousie University

  183. Stanley Jeffers, Associate Professor Emeritus, York University

  184. Richard Collier, Professor Emeritus, Mount Royal

  185. Ben-Z. Shek, Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto

  186. Colleen Shantz, Assistant Professor, University of St. Michael’s College, Toronto

  187. John Kirk, Professor, Dalhousie University

  188. Phyllis Creighton, Adjunct Faculty, Faculty of Divinity, University of Trinity College

  189. Colleen O’Manique, Chair, Women’s Studies, Trent University

  190. Richard Julien, Professor, University of Saskatchewan

  191. Cathy Holtmann, St. Thomas University

  192. Kenneth Flegel, Professor of Medicine, McGill University

  193. June Larkin, Senior Lecturer, University of Toronto

  194. Celeste Johnston, Professor, McGill University, School of Nursing

  195. Dr. Gerhard Stroink, Professor Emeritus, Dalhousie University

  196. Robert Regnier, Professor, University of Saskatchewan

  197. Colin Stuttard, Professor (Retired), Dalhousie University

  198. Sheelah McLean, Seconded Professor, University of Saskatchewan

  199. Yvonne Cuttle, Associate Prof. (Retired), University of Saskatchewan

  200. Gordon McBean, Professor, University of Western Ontario, CM, FRSC

  201. Nico Koenig, University of Toronto

  202. JoAnn Jaffe, Professor, University of Regina

  203. Jean L Freed, Lecturer, Concordia University

  204. Shelley Cooper-Stephenson, RN, BSN, M.C.Ed, University of Saskatchewan

  205. Aline Deckers, Part-time faculty, Department of Education, Concordia University

  206. Dr. Irene Novaczek, UPEI

  207. Cate Ahrens, Student, University of Toronto

  208. Cathy Vakil, Assistant Professor, Queen’s University

  209. Jessica Senehi, Assistant Professor, University of Manitoba

  210. Ruth Hayhoe, Professor, University of Toronto, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education

  211. Tracy Swan, Assistant Professor, Memorial University of Newfoundland and Labrador

  212. Peter Camfield, MD, FRCP, Professor, Department Pediatrics Dalhousie University

  213. Radoslav S. Dimitrov, Associate Professor, University of Western Ontario

  214. Larry Schmidt, Dr., University of Toronto

  215. Stephen Hill, Assistant Professor, Trent University

  216. Dr. Rachel Engler-Stringer, University of Saskatchewan

  217. Jane Griffiths, Physician/ Assistant Professor, Queen’s University

  218. Liisa L. North, Professor Emerita, York University

  219. Janet McVittie, Assistant Professor, Science Education, University of Saskatchewan

  220. Elvi Whittaker, Professor Emerita, UBC

  221. Steffanie Scott, Associate Professor, University of Waterloo

  222. Emma Cunliffe Assistant Professor, University of British Columbia

  223. Robert, Sessional Lecturer, University of Saskatchewan

  224. Geoffrey Hodgetts, Professor, Queen’s University

  225. Susan Phillips, Professor, Queen’s University

  226. Tracey Fallak, Course Leader – Instructor, Red River College

  227. Dr. Geraldine Balzer, University of Saskatchewan

  228. Dr. Michael J Sylvester, Queen’s University

  229. Eric Mykhalovskiy, Associate Professor, York University

  230. Karen Schultz, MD, Associate Professor, Queen’s University

  231. Carl Boyd, Professor, Dalhousie University

  232. Maria Jimenes, Assistant Professor, Spanish, Dalhousie University

  233. Norman Epstein, Professor Emeritus, University of British Columbia

  234. Patricia Palulis, Assistant Professor, University of Ottawa

  235. Dr. Audrey Giles, Assoc. Professor, University of Ottawa

  236. Linda Radford, Part-time professor, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa

  237. Margaret Critchlow, Professor, York University

  238. Paul Parker, Professor, University of Waterloo

  239. Andrew P. Lyons, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario

  240. Will C. van den Hoonaard, Professor Emeritus, University of New Brunswick

  241. Pat O’Riley, Associate Professor, York University

  242. Dr. Shelley Butler, McGill

  243. Marlene R. Atleo, Assistant Professor, Manitoba Education

  244. Dr., Rupa Patel, Queen’s University

  245. Phillip Vannini, Associate Professor, Royal Roads University

  246. Dot Bonnenfant, CHNET-Works! Animateur, University of Ottawa

  247. Patricia Watt, Graduate Student, University of Ottawa

  248. Dr. Steven E. Noble, Faculty Member, University of Ottawa

  249. Peter Cole, Associate Professor, University College of the North

  250. Dr. Jason Price, Assistant Professor, University of Victoria

  251. Dr. Josette Déléas, Mount Saint Vincent University

  252. Dr. Randolph Haluza-DeLay, The King’s University College, Edmonton, AB

  253. Carole Farber, Associate Professor, The University of Western Ontario

  254. R.S. Ratner Professor Emeritus, Sociology, University of British Columbia

  255. Rosemary MacKenzie, Librarian (retired), Dalhousie University

  256. Dr. Myra Hird, Associate Professor, Queen’s University

  257. Jacie Foy, Curriculum Designer, Brandon University

  258. Dr. Kenneth Little, Associate Professor,York University

  259. Dr. Karolyn Waterson, Professor, retired, Dalhousie University

  260. Dr. Ken Deacon, Assistant Professor formerly, Lakehead University, Biology

  261. Daphne Winland, Associate Professor, York University

  262. Bill Bavington, Honorary Research Professor (retired), Memorial University of Newfoundland

  263. Christina De Simone, Assistant Professor, University of Ottawa

  264. Teresa Holmes, Associate Professor, York University

  265. Natividad Urquizo, Environmental Planner, Ottawa University

  266. Barrie M. Morrison, Professor Emeritus, UBC

  267. Kathleen Mahoney, Professor, University of Calgary

  268. Dr. Barbara Spronk, Visiting Graduate Professor, Athabasca University

  269. Greg Michalenko, Professor Emeritus, University of Waterloo

  270. Dr. Kathryn McNaughton, University College of the North

  271. Celia Haig-Brown, Professor, York University

  272. Joan Bell, Alumni member of U of S, Past senator and member of the Board of Governors, University of Saskatchewan

  273. Kathleen Buddle, Associate Professor, University of Manitoba

  274. Dr. Chris Ferns, Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  275. Anna Smol, Associate Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  276. Dr. Nargess Kayhani, Associate Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  277. Jean M. Mills, Associate Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, NS

  278. Elizabeth Church, Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  279. Meg Raven, Librarian, Mount Saint Vincent University

  280. Dr. Leslie Brown, Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  281. Denyse Rodrigues, Mount Saint Vincent University

  282. Dr. Leighton Steele, Mount Saint Vincent University

  283. Dr. Stephen Perrott, Associate Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  284. Fred Harrington, Associate Vice-President, Research, Mt St Vincent University

  285. Dr. Ken Dewar, Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  286. Denise Nevo, Associate Professor, Mount Saint Vincent

  287. Peter Glenister, Bibliographic Services Librarian, Mount Saint Vincent University

  288. Susan Boyd, Professor Emeritus, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia

  289. Daphne Lordly, Associate Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  290. Elizabeth Hicks, Associate Professor (accounting), Mount Saint Vincent University

  291. Susan Walsh, Associate Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  292. Alex Khasnabish, Assistant Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  293. Dr. Rhoda Zuk, Associate Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  294. Dr. Katherine Darvesh, Associate Vice President (Academic), Mount Saint Vincent University

  295. Blake Poland, Professor, University of Toronto

  296. Dr. David Heap, University of Western Ontario

  297. Trudie Richards, Associate Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  298. Belinda Dodson, Associate Professor, University of Western Ontario

  299. Bernie Hammond, Dr., King’s University College, UWO

  300. Laara Fitznor, Assistant Professor, University of Manitoba

  301. Joyce Ellen Kennedy, Assistant Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  302. Joshua Schuster, Assistant Professor, University of Western Ontario

  303. Bharat Punjabi, PhD Candidate, Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario

  304. Dr. Natasha Patrito Hannon, University of Western Ontario

  305. Dr. Jennifer McLaren, Associate Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  306. Ian Colquhoun, Assistant Professor, Anthropology, University of Western Ontario

  307. Kerry Daly, Professor, Associate Dean (Research – SS), University of Guelph

  308. Shane ONeill, Sessional Lecturer, University of Western Ontario

  309. Jennifer L. Otto, RN BN, Clinical Education Facilitator, Red River College

  310. Marilyn Norman, Lecturer, University of Western Ontario

  311. Ian Attridge, Instructor, Trent University

  312. Dr. Mark Cleveland, Assistant Professor of Marketing, University of Western Ontario

  313. Tristan Martel, Teaching Assistant, University of Western Ontario

  314. Jonathan Roberts, Mount Saint Vincent University

  315. Dr. Jane Gordon, Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  316. DeNel Rehberg Sedo, Associate Professor, MSVU

  317. Brent Sinclair, Assistant Professor, University of Western Ontario

  318. Michiya Kawai, Associate Professor, Huron University College

  319. Susan Church, Part-time faculty member, Mount Saint Vincent University

  320. Scott MacDougall-Shackleton, Associate Professor, University of Western Ontario

  321. Slobodan P. Simonovic, Professor, University of Western Ontario

  322. Patricia M. Gray, Lecturer, University of Western Ontario

  323. Elizabeth MacDougall-Shackleton, Assistant Professor, University of Western Ontario

  324. R Greg Thorn, Associate Professor, University of Western Ontario, Department of Biology

  325. James Staples, Associate Professor, University of Western Ontario

  326. Dr. Christopher G. Guglielmo, Assistant Professor, University of Western Ontario

  327. Louise Milligan, Associate Professor, Biology, University of Western Ontario

  328. Dr. Mark A. Bernards, Professor and Chair, Department of Biology, The University of Western Ontario

  329. Lisa Hodgetts, Assistant Professor – Anthropology, The University of Western Ontario

  330. Tamie Poepping, Assistant Professor, The University of Western Ontario

  331. Liana Zanette, Dr., University of Western Ontario

  332. Lynne Cunningham, Alumnus, Mount Saint Vincent University

  333. Peter Streufert, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Western Ontario

  334. Rebecca Coulter, Professor, University of Western Ontario

  335. Patricia Connor, Director, Cartographic Services, University of Western Ontario, Geography Department

  336. Ann Bigelow, Lecturer, University of Western Ontario

  337. Rosemary Cairns Way, Asociate Professor, University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law

  338. Louise Bélanger-Hardy, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa

  339. Sanda Rodgers, Professor, University of Ottawa

  340. Donna Bourne-Tyson, University Librarian, Mount Saint Vincent University

  341. Angela Birt, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Mount Saint Vincent University

  342. Hazel MacRae, Associate Professor, Mount Saint Vincent

  343. Nathalie Chalifour, Assistant Professor, University of Ottawa

  344. Graham Thompson, Assistant Professor, Western Ontario, Biology

  345. Marc-Andre Lachance, Professor, University of Western Ontario

  346. Joanne St. Lewis, Professor, University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law

  347. Jacqueline Mary Huston, Professor, University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law

  348. Dr. Michelle Owen, The University of Winnipeg

  349. Shayna Watson, Assistant Professor/Physician, Queen’s University

  350. Victor Neufeld, Professor Emeritus, McMaster University

  351. Jeremy N. McNeil, Professor, The University of Western Ontario

  352. Dr. Sheila Harms, McMaster University

  353. Dr. Penny Powers, Thompson Rivers University

  354. George M. Johnson, Associate Professor, Thompson Rivers University

  355. Dr. Anne Gagnon, Thompson Rivers University

  356. Dr. Fernando Nunes, Assistant Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  357. Peter Tsigaris, Associate Professor, Thompson Rivers University

  358. David Webster, Assistant Professor, University of Regina

  359. Elizabeth Sheehy, Professor, University of Ottawa

  360. Terryl Atkins, Instructor, Thompson Rivers University

  361. Dr. Gabor Sass, Post-Doctoral Fellow, University of Western Ontario

  362. Stephen Kimber, Rogers Communications Chair in Journalism, University of King’s College

  363. Paul Handford, Associate Professor, University of Western Ontario

  364. Erica Dodd, Professor, University of Victoria

  365. Larry Hannant, Dr.University of Victoria and Camosun College

  366. Dr. Benjamin Isitt, Assistant Professor and Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Victoria

  367. Dr. Leonora C. Angeles, Associate Professor, University of British Columbia

  368. Ruth W. Sandwell, Associate Professor, University of Toronto

  369. Aline Grenon, Full Professor, University of Ottawa, Programme de common law en français

  370. Tony Weis, Assistant Professor University of Western Ontario, Department of Geography

  371. Megan Davies, Associate Professor, York University

  372. John Janke, Instructor, Thompson Rivers University

  373. Nancy Killick, Lecturer, Thompson Rivers University

  374. Lamarche André, Directeur du Département de musique, Université du Québec à Montréal

  375. Neil Arya, Director of Global Health, University of Western Ontario

  376. Patricia Kaufert, Professor, University of Manitoba

  377. Ray Zabulionis, Lecturer, University of Western Ontario

  378. Margaret D. Sanborn, Assistant Clinical Professor, McMaster University

  379. Martin Foster, Professeur associé, Université du Québec à Montréal

  380. John Schellenberg, Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  381. Kathleen Kerr, MD, University of Toronto

  382. Colin A.M. Duncan, Adjunct Associate Professor, Queen’s University

  383. Donna Varga, Associate Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  384. Margaret Little, Full Professor, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario

  385. Kari Brozowski, Associate Professor, Wilfrid Laurier University, Health Studies

  386. Elisabet Service, Assistant Professor, McMaster University

  387. Bonnie Fox, Professor, University of Toronto

  388. Notebaert Eric, MD, MSc, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Montreal

  389. Dr. Andrew Pinto, Lecturer, University of Toronto

  390. Roger Suffling, Professor, University of Waterloo

  391. Ruth Sullivan, Professor, University of Ottawa

  392. Margaret Malone, Associate Professor, Ryerson University

  393. Charles King, Clinical Assistant Professor, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia

  394. Lorri Neilsen Glenn, Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  395. Hilary Cunningham, Associate Professor, University of Toronto

  396. Brent King, Associate Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

  397. Darlene Buckingham, York University

  398. Tawhid Habib, Boise St. University, Software Industry

  399. Timothy Leduc, Post-Doctoral Fellow, University of Toronto

  400. Alan Abeslohn, Assistant Professor, Department of Family and Community Medicine and Public Health, University of Toronto

  401. Alan MacEachern, Associate Professor, HistoryUniversity of Western Ontario

  402. Dr. Jean Wilson Associate Professor, McMaster University

  403. Ellie Berger Assistant Professor Nipissing University

  404. Lee Gass, Professor Emeritus, University of British Columbia

  405. Ruth Sullivan, Professor, University of Ottawa

  406. Jennifer Fulford, MD, Northern Ontario School of Medicine

  407. Janet Wood, Professor, University of Guelph

  408. Victor Snieckus, Professor of Chemistry, Bader Chair of Chemistry, Queen’s University

  409. David Josephy, Professor, University of Guelph, Molec. & Cell. Biology

  410. Ray Morris, Professor Emeritus of Sociology, York University

  411. William Harvey, Professor Emeritus, Department of Philosophy, University of Toronto

  412. Brian Merrilees, Professeur Emerite, University of Toronto

  413. Farrokh Sharifi, Professor, Ryerson University

  414. Jian Li Hao, Associate Professor, Ryerson University